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18th International Conference on Nephrology & Urology , will be organized around the theme “Exploring the pioneering technology in Nephrology and Urology ”

Nephrology & Urology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Nephrology & Urology 2019

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Nephrology is a branch of medical science that deals with function and diseases of the kidneys and it focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is surrounded by pararenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatics and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla. The renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule while the renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, which are separated from each other by an extension of renal cortex called renal columns. The kidneys serve important functions, including filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products (urea and ammonium); regulation of necessary electrolytes, fluid, and acid-base balance; and stimulation of red blood cell production. They also serve to regulate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, controlling reabsorption of water and maintaining intravascular volume.

  • Track 1-1Nephrology & Renal Studies
  • Track 1-2Advances in Nephrology
  • Track 1-3Renal histopathology
  • Track 1-4Medullary Sponge Kidney
  • Track 1-5Multicystic Renal dysplasia & microscopic
  • Track 1-6Normal adult kidney, cross section, gross Cut section of Kidney
  • Track 1-7Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Track 1-8Artificial kidney
  • Track 1-9Pelvic kidney
  • Track 1-10Quality management
  • Track 1-11Tumor Lysis Syndrome
  • Track 1-12Pyelonephritis (infection of the kidneys)
  • Track 1-13Urinary abnormalities in children

A urinary tract infection naturally occurs when bacteria pass in the urinary tract through the urethra and initiate to growth in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic interlopers, these defenses sometimes fail. When that occurs, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very predominantly in women, babies and older people. Around one in two women and one in 20 men will get a UTI in their lifetime

  • Track 2-1Pediatric Urology
  • Track 2-2Urethritis (infection of the urethra)
  • Track 2-3Cystitis (infection of the bladder)
  • Track 2-4Obstruction of The Urinary Tract
  • Track 2-5Clinical Urology
  • Track 2-6Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract
  • Track 2-7Urology Practice Management
  • Track 2-8Pediatric Urology & Female Urology
  • Track 2-9Reconstructive Urology
  • Track 2-10Urethral Cancer
  • Track 2-11Bladder Cancer
  • Track 2-12Troubleshooting URS and PCNL
  • Track 2-13Penile Cancer

Dialysis works on the objective of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of liquid over a semi-penetrable layer. Diffusion is a property of substances in water substances in water tend to move from a territory of high fixation to a range of low focus. The two primary sorts of dialysis, Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis removes wastes and water from the blood in various ways. Hemodialysis removes waste water by circling blood outside the body through an outer filter called a dialyzer that contains a semipermeable layer. There are five types of dialysis three are primary and two are secondary types of dialysis: Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration are primary types of dialysis and were as hemodiafiltration, and intestinal dialysis is secondary type of dialysis.

The most common procedure of kidney replacement therapy is dialysis, is a method of cleaning the blood with artificial kidneys. There is of types of dialysis they are:

1. Hemodialysis 2. Peritoneal dialysis.

Hemodialysis: Hemodialysis required with the patients of renal failure. In this process of Hemodialysis, an artificial kidney purifies blood. We ought to make an "access," usually in the forearm where blood can easily be taken from the body and directed to the artificial kidney for purification. The access collects blood from patient body and undergoes purification in artificial kidney and again injected the purified blood in to patient body.

Peritoneal dialysis: In peritoneal dialysis no artificial kidney is used. The peritoneum (lining inside your abdomen) is used as a filter instead of artificial kidney. Peritoneal dialysis is of two types they are continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is used in kidney failure patients.

  • Track 3-1Complications of Dialysis
  • Track 3-2Extracorporeal Dialysis: Techniques and Adequacy
  • Track 3-3Chronic dialysis
  • Track 3-4Medical applications dialysis
  • Track 3-5Interpretation of x-rays, sonograms and other tests
  • Track 3-6Hemo dialysis
  • Track 3-7Peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 3-8Pediatric dialysis
  • Track 3-9Hemofiltration
  • Track 3-10Hemodiafiltration
  • Track 3-11Intestinal dialysis
  • Track 3-12Vascular Access in Dialysis

Nephrology Nursing is a planned attempt to increase nursing knowledge by the discovery of new facts through systematic enquiry. It includes: Improvement in patient care, Reduced cost of kidney care provision, Accountability and protection against litigation, Addition to the existing body of nursing knowledge, Enhancement of nursing as a profession.

Renal care nursing is the field of nursing with a focus on the most extreme consideration of the discriminatingly sick or unsteady chronic kidney patients. Contamination revolution and nursing consideration is the control concerned with turning away nosocomial or health awareness related disease, a functional (as opposed to scholastic) sub-order of the study of disease transmission. Infants who need escalated restorative consideration are regularly conceded into a unique region of the clinic called the Neonatal serious care and nursing consideration. The part of backing in discriminating nursing consideration: Critical consideration medical attendants work in a wide assortment of settings, filling numerous parts including bedside clinicians, attendant teachers, medical caretaker analysts, medical caretaker supervisors, clinical medical caretaker authorities and medical attendant professionals. Measurements of Renal Care Nursing's mission is to give attendants exact, current, and applicable data and lodging to exceed expectations in discriminating consideration rehearse.

  • Track 4-1Care for Kidney diseases
  • Track 4-2 Hemodialysis Nurse
  • Track 4-3Peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 4-4Nurse Vascular access coordinator
  • Track 4-5Clinical nurse specialist
  • Track 4-6Transplant coordinator
  • Track 4-7Pharmaceutical representative
  • Track 4-8 Nurse practitioner
  • Track 4-9Nurse manager
  • Track 4-10Nurse researcher
  • Track 4-11Nurse Educator
  • Track 4-12Office Nurse

Renal nutrition is concerned with the special nutritional needs of kidney patients. Renal nutrition is concerned with ensuring that kidney patients eat the right foods to make dialysis efficient and improve health. Dialysis clinics have dieticians on staff that who help patients plan meals. Standard guidelines are: eating more high protein foods, and less high salt, high potassium, and high phosphorus foods. Patients are also advised on safe fluid intake levels.


  • Track 5-1Anemia & Erythropoietin (EPO)
  • Track 5-2Low Protein Diet
  • Track 5-3Low Phosphorous Diet
  • Track 5-4Fluid Intake
  • Track 5-5 Low Potassium
  • Track 5-6Low Sodium
  • Track 5-7Renal Osteodystrophy
  • Track 5-8Sleep disorders
  • Track 5-9High protein
  • Track 5-10foods Insulin
  • Track 5-11B group vitamins
  • Track 5-12 Bulk minerals
  • Track 5-13Glucose Micronutrients
  • Track 5-14Trace minerals
  • Track 5-15Dietary needs of kidney patients
  • Track 5-16Renal Supplements
  • Track 5-17Nutrition Therapy

Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to impairment to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure.HN can be divided into two types: benign and malignant. Benign nephrosclerosis is common in individuals over the age of 60 where malignant nephrosclerosis is uncommon and affects 1-5% of individuals with high blood pressure, that have diastolic blood pressure passing 130 mm Hg. It should be illustrious from renovascular hypertension, which is a form of secondary hypertension. In addition, HN can be referred to as hypertensive nephrosclerosis, benign nephrosclerosis, and nephroangiosclerosis.

  • Track 6-1Hypertension
  • Track 6-2Glomerular hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration
  • Track 6-3Hypophosphatemia, Hyperuricemia, Hyperkalemia
  • Track 6-4Glomerular ischemia
  • Track 6-5Hypertension and Renal Disease in Pregnancy

Kidney disease may also lead to heart disease or coronary illness because of this more than 20 million people died in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease induces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Coronary disease result for more than half of all deaths among individuals with CKD (Chronic kidney diseases).  Indeed, even early or mellow renal disease ailment puts a man at higher danger of heart ailments and heart attacks and heart disease-related death. Kidney dialysis patients who also have cardiovascular disease are died 10 to 30 times more than in the general cardiovascular patients. Diabetes and hypertension are major risk factors for heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Kidney disease (acute kidney disease or chronic kidney disease) can induce the danger of cardiovascular ill, even with hypertension, high cholesterol and concurrent diabetes. Recent researches show that kidney diseases (renal diseases) induce heart disease, even before the kidneys are harmed to the point of requiring dialysis or transplantation.

  • Track 7-1Effects of Cardiovascular Diseases on The Kidney
  • Track 7-2Effects of The Kidney on The Cardiovascular System
  • Track 7-3Modification of Cardiac Drugs in Renal Disease
  • Track 7-4Diseases Affecting both Organs

A branch of medicine which deals with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems & their treatment. It also involves Renal replacement therapies.

Acute kidney failure: Disfunction of the kidneys to filter the waste from the blood. Decreased urinary output, swelling due to urinary retention, nausea, shortness of breath is some of the symptoms. Acute tubular necrosis was death of the tubular epithelial of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Consumption of nephrotoxic drugs & low blood pressure are the common causes. Diabetes insipidus-  A condition in which kidneys prevent the excretion of water. Hypocalcemia & Several Other Case Reports Related to Nephrology.

Every nephrologist has received extensive training in general internal medicine, and many nephrologists will treat their patients for other things besides kidney problems. It’s important that patients tell their kidney doctors if they notice any changes in their health.

  • Track 8-1Calcium stones
  • Track 8-2 Uric Acid stones
  • Track 8-3Struvite stones
  • Track 8-4Cystine stones
  • Track 8-5Xanthine stones
  • Track 8-6Calcium phosphate stones
  • Track 8-7Calcium oxalate stones
  • Track 8-8Supersaturation of urine
  • Track 8-9Inhibitors of stone formation
  • Track 8-10Hypocitraturia
  • Track 8-11Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
  • Track 8-12Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
  • Track 8-13Ulcerative colitis

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an unexpected incident of kidney failure or kidney damage that occurs within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it tough for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. AKI can also distress other organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Acute kidney injury is common in patients who are in the hospital, in intensive care units, and especially in older adults.

  • Track 9-1Prerenal Acute Renal Failure
  • Track 9-2Postrenal Acute Renal Failure
  • Track 9-3Acute Kidney Injury– Experimental Models
  • Track 9-4Intrinsic renal failure
  • Track 9-5Tubular
  • Track 9-6Vascular Kidney
  • Track 9-7 Vascular Diseases

End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.

  • Track 10-1Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis, Classification and Progression
  • Track 10-2Cardiovascular Complications of CKD 3-5
  • Track 10-3Anemia (CKD 3-5)
  • Track 10-4Nutrition (CKD 3-5)
  • Track 10-5Infection (CKD 3-5)
  • Track 10-6 Salt wasting

      The renal system uphold homeostasis in the body avoiding significant alterations in the balance of fluid electrolyte or acid–base equivalence until the Glomerular filtration rates reduced to below 25 ml/min because of  a series of versatile changes, both Renal and extra renal. With dynamic decrease in renal capacity these components are overpowered bringing about unsettling influences in water digestion system adding to hypernatremia and hypernatremia. The modified control of sodium transport causes irritated volume status including volume over-burden and exhaustion. The rate of Hyperkaliemia and metabolic acidosis is more incessant in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with GFR beneath 10 ml/min. In this survey article we will endeavor to audit the renal and supplementary renal adjustment components looking after liquid, electrolyte and corrosive base equalization in endless kidney illness alongside variables which cause disappointment of these instruments.

  • Track 11-1Homeostasis
  • Track 11-2Disturbances of Plasma Sodium Concentration
  • Track 11-3Disturbances of Plasma Potassium Concentration
  • Track 11-4Disturbances of Plasma Calcium Concentration
  • Track 11-5Physiology of Acid-Base System
  • Track 11-6Electrolyte Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus
  • Track 11-7Hydration in Kidney Disease Prevention
  • Track 11-8Disorders of Plasma Osmolality
  • Track 11-9Metabolic Acidosis
  • Track 11-10Respiratory Acidosis
  • Track 11-11Metabolic Alkalosis
  • Track 11-12Nerve impulses & Muscle contractions
  • Track 11-13Metabolic bone disease
  • Track 11-14Renal fibrosis
  • Track 11-15Fluid balance

    Robotic nephrectomy, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of pre-existing minimally-invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery.

  • Track 12-1Robotic Prostate Surgery
  • Track 12-2 Robotic Colorectal Surgery
  • Track 12-3Robotic Kidney Surgery
  • Track 12-4 Uro-Oncology/Robotics
  • Track 12-5Tubular and Interstitial Diseases
  • Track 12-6 Tubular/interstitial disorders
  • Track 12-7Genitourinary Tract Injuries
  • Track 12-8Interstitial cystitis or painful bladder

The diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.

If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body.

If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.

  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Diabetes Mellitus (Clinical)
  • Diabetic Nephropathy–Biomarkers of Disease
  • Intensive Management of Blood Glucose
  • Genetics of Kidney Disease–Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • Hypertension-Clinical and Experimental Models
  • Renal Hemodynamics and Vascular Physiology
  • Complication of diabetes
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Diabetic diet
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Hyperbaric medicine
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Angiotensin


  • Track 13-1Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Track 13-2 Diabetes Mellitus (Clinical)
  • Track 13-3Diabetic Nephropathy–Biomarkers of Disease
  • Track 13-4 Intensive Management of Blood Glucose
  • Track 13-5Genetics of Kidney Disease–Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • Track 13-6Hypertension-Clinical and Experimental Models
  • Track 13-7Renal Hemodynamics and Vascular Physiology
  • Track 13-8Complication of diabetes
  • Track 13-9Diabetes mellitus
  • Track 13-10ACE inhibitors
  • Track 13-11Diabetic diet
  • Track 13-12Type 1 diabetes
  • Track 13-13Type 2 diabetes
  • Track 13-14Hyperbaric medicine
  • Track 13-15Glomerular filtration rate
  • Track 13-16Angiotensin

   The kidneys are often targeted by pathogenic immune responses against renal auto antigens or by local manifestations of systemic autoimmunity. For the diagnosis renal pathologists use special tests and electron microscopes to detect the cells involved in diseases affecting the kidneys.

Kidney biopsies permit us to analyses renal disorders; review anticipations; help in the resolve of a precise restorative approach; and screen ailment movement in both local and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally abuse renal biopsy examples, a blend of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is used. Each microscopy requires distinctive strategies for fixation and preparing, so each renal biopsy centers are commonly separated into three sections. Contingent upon the length of the biopsy center or suspected illness process; in any case, the strategy for partitioning the biopsy center might be altered.

  • Track 14-1Anatomic pathology
  • Track 14-2Diagnosis & Characterization
  • Track 14-3Electron microscopy
  • Track 14-4 Glomerulus the tubules
  • Track 14-5Immunofluorescence
  • Track 14-6Medical diseases (non-tumor) of the kidneys
  • Track 14-7Medical renal diseases
  • Track 14-8Renal biopsy
  • Track 14-9Autoimmune diseases
  • Track 14-10 Diagnostic immunology
  • Track 14-11Hypersensitivities
  • Track 14-12 Immune deficiency
  • Track 14-13Immunoglobulin- IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE & IgA
  • Track 14-14Immunotherapy
  • Track 14-15Primary immune diseases
  • Track 14-16Transplant rejection
  • Track 14-17Immunosuppression

There are several hospitals offering kidney treatments including dialysis and transplantation. They are well known for health care and fast recovery is promised from the hospital combined with a pleasant and suitable caring atmosphere. According to the global statistics they were nearly 12000 Hospitals in cites associated with kidney treatments and 17790 doctors of USA working in the hospitals.

Several renal diseases like Polycystic Kidney Disease are result from genetic factors. In polycystic kidney disease number of cysts improves in the kidney, these cysts gradually replace the mass of kidney. Impairing kidney function and leading to renal failure.

Your nephrologist will work to slow or control the reason of your kidney disease. Depending on the root, some types of kidney disease can be cured. Frequently, chronic kidney disease has no prevention. In the event that your kidneys turn out to be extremely harmed, you may require treatment for end-stage kidney diseases. In the event that your kidneys can't stay aware of waste and liquid freedom all alone and you create finish or close kidney disease, you have End-stage renal disorder. By then, dialysis or a kidney transplant is required. Since no particular in option and Ayurveda prescription for kidney can treat kidney disappointment effectively, the best technique is to join them. Immunotherapy, as one extraordinary leap forward in treating end-stage kidney sickness, is only a blend of cutting edge western restorative advances and customary home-grown drugs.

  • Track 15-1Diagnostic, Imaging & Radiation techniques
  • Track 15-2Genetic Diseases of the Kidney
  • Track 15-3Recent advancements in renal therapeutics
  • Track 15-4Excess fluids & waste from blood
  • Track 15-5Polycystic Kidney disease
  • Track 15-6 Medullary cystic kidney disease
  • Track 15-7Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Track 15-8Urine analysis
  • Track 15-9Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Track 15-10Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Track 15-11Ultrasound scanning
  • Track 15-12 IgA Nephropathy
  • Track 15-13Intravenous urography, Renal Arteriography, Renal agenesis
  • Track 15-14Scintigraphy & Nuclear medicine
  • Track 15-15Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Track 15-16Pyelonephritis, Nephropathy, Nephronophthisis, Obstructive nephropathy
  • Track 15-17Alport Syndrome, Papillorenal syndrome
  • Track 15-18Computed axial tomography
  • Track 15-19 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-arrange kidney diseases. Kidney transplantation is commonly named deceased donor known as cadaveric or living donor transplantation relying upon the wellspring of the giver organ. Living donor kidney transplants are formerly differentiated as non-related living transplants or, living related transplants contingent upon whether a biological relationship exists between the kidney donor and kidney recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel way to deal with grows the living donor pool.

  • Track 16-1Kidney Transplantation recipients
  • Track 16-2 Living donors of kidney
  • Track 16-3Renal replacement therapy
  • Track 16-4Renal function in living kidney donors
  • Track 16-5Kidney Biopsy
  • Track 16-6Deceased donors
  • Track 16-7kidney paired donation
  • Track 16-8Compatible kidney
  • Track 16-9Kidney exchange
  • Track 16-10Compatible kidney
  • Track 16-11Kidney exchange
  • Track 16-12Immunosuppression
  • Track 16-13 Kidney pancreas transplant
  • Track 16-14Post operation
  • Track 16-15Nephrotoxicity
  • Track 16-16Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
  • Track 16-17Transplantation rejection
  • Track 16-18Artificial kidney

    The study of pediatric nephrology determines diagnosis and management of infants with a chronic and acute kidney disorders. The division of pediatric nephrology assesses and treats hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and kidney damage in children. It also includes complete care to pediatric patients with end stage kidney syndromes, including consideration to patients experiencing peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in infants.

  • Track 17-1Pediatric Renal Failure
  • Track 17-2Pediatric Renal Nutrition
  • Track 17-3Pediatric Renal Transplantation
  • Track 17-4 Kidney Care in children
  • Track 17-5Pediatric Kidney Dialysis
  • Track 17-6Pediatric Kidney stones
  • Track 17-7Pediatric Nephritis
  • Track 17-8Advances in Pediatric Kidney Operation
  • Track 17-9 Pediatric chronic hemodialysis
  • Track 17-10Pediatric Urology

The aims of this study were to assess the clinical utility of total and regional bone densitometry in a large continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) population and to determine the clinical, biochemical, and radiographic variables that best identified osteopenia CAPD patients.

The diagnostic and prognostic validity of sperm function biomarkers is particularly relevant for males with unexplained infertility in which routine semen analysis fails to detect sub cellular   sperm dysfunctions. In this general review, we examine there are several types of acute nephritis. They are Interstitial Nephritis: The spaces between the renal tubules that form urine become inflamed. Pyelonephritis: This type of acute nephritis produces inflammation in the glomeruli. Interstitial Nephritis: This type is often caused by an allergic reaction to a medication or antibiotic.

Most of nephritis infections occur from the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is found in the intestine.

  • Track 18-1Clinical Renal Densitometry
  • Track 18-2Biomarkers in nephrology
  • Track 18-3Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis
  • Track 18-4Passive Heyman nephritis
  • Track 18-5Pediatric Nephritis
  • Track 18-6Glomerulonephritis
  • Track 18-7Interstitial Nephritis
  • Track 18-8Acute Nephrosis
  • Track 18-9Lupus Nephritis
  • Track 18-10Pyelonephritis
  • Track 18-11Urogynecology
  • Track 18-12 Diabetes

Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is often used to help treat symptoms and complications and to slow further kidney damage. Most people who have chronic kidney disease have problems with high blood pressure at some time during their disease. Medicines that lower blood pressure help to keep it in a target range and stop any more kidney damage. You may need to try several blood pressure medicines before you find the medicine that controls your blood pressure well without bothersome side effects. Most people need to take a combination of medicines to get the best results. Your doctor may order blood tests 3 to 5 days after you start or change your medicines. The tests help your doctor make sure that your medicines are working correctly.

Medicines may be used to treat symptoms and complications of chronic kidney disease. These medicines include:

Erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and iron replacement therapy (iron pills or intravenous iron) for anemia.

Medicines for electrolyte imbalances.

Diuretics to treat fluid buildup caused by chronic kidney disease.

ACE inhibitors and ARBs. These may be used if you have protein in your urine (proteinuria) or have heart failure. Regular blood tests are required to make sure that these medicines don't raise potassium levels (hyperkalemia) or make kidney function worse.

Both erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and iron replacement therapy may also be used during dialysis to treat anemia, which often develops in advanced chronic kidney disease.

Erythropoietin (rhEPO) stimulates the production of new red blood cells and may decrease the need for blood transfusions. This therapy may also be started before dialysis is needed, when anemia is severe and causing symptoms.

Iron therapy can help increase levels of iron in the body when rhEPO therapy alone is not effective.
Vitamin D helps keep bones strong and healthy


  • Track 19-1Nephropharmacology
  • Track 19-2Modern Homeopathic Medicine - Kidneys and Urinary System
  • Track 19-3Kidney physiotherapy & Rehabilitation
  • Track 19-4Naturopaths Against Kidney Disease and urology

Clinical Nephrology covers the conclusion and treating of renal syndromes, including primary and secondary hypertension and electrolyte disturbances, and the care of those requiring renal replacement treatment, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Numerous diseases influencing the kidney are systemic scatters not constrained to the organ itself and may require uncommon treatment. Illustrations incorporate procured conditions, for example, systemic vasculitides and immune system diseases, lupus and innate or genetic conditions, such as, polycystic kidney diseases. Patients are referred to clinical nephrology doctors after a urinalysis, for different reasons, such as, acute kidney failure, hematuria, proteinuria, chronic kidney diseases, kidney stones, hypertension, and disarranges of acid/base or electrolyte.

  • Track 20-1Glomerular/vascular disorder
  • Track 20-2Chemotherapy
  • Track 20-3Renal Pediatricians
  • Track 20-4Nephritis, Nephrectomy, Nephrotoxicity, Nephronophthisis
  • Track 20-5Kidney care Physicians
  • Track 20-6Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Track 20-7Onconephrology
  • Track 20-8 Urinary incontinence/Enuresis
  • Track 20-9Obstructive Nephropathy
  • Track 20-10Oncologic Nephrology
  • Track 20-11Stem Cell and Regenerative Nephrology
  • Track 20-12Critical Care Nephrology
  • Track 20-13Nephron Clinical Practice